Types of Mortgages
Where, without delivering possession of the mortgaged property, the mortgagor binds himself personally to pay the mortgage-money, and agrees, expressly or impliedly that in the event of his failing to pay according to his contract, the mortgagee shall have a right to cause the mortgaged property to be sold and the proceeds of sale to be applied, so far as may be necessary, in payment of the mortgage-money, the transaction is called a simple mortgage and the mortgagee a simple mortgagee.
Mortgage by Conditional Sale
Where, the mortgagor ostensibly sells the mortgaged property-
On condition that on default of payment of the mortgage-money on a certain date the sale shall become absolute, or;
On condition that on such payment being made the sale shall become void, or ;
On condition that on such payment being made the buyer shall transfer the property to the seller,
The transaction is called a mortgage by conditional sale and the mortgagee a mortgagee by conditional sale:
PROVIDED that no such transaction shall be deemed to be a mortgage, unless the condition is embodied in the document, which effects or purports to effect the sale.
Where the mortgagor delivers possession, or expressly or by implication binds himself to deliver possession of the mortgaged property to the mortgagee and authorizes him to retain such possession until payment of the mortgage money, and to receive the rents and profits accruing from the property or any part of such rents and profits and to appropriate the same in lieu of interest or partly in payment of the mortgage money, partly in lieu of interest and partly in payment of the mortgage money, the transaction is called a usufructuary mortgage and the mortgagee a usufructuary mortgagee.
Where the mortgagor binds himself to repay the mortgage money on a certain date, and transfers the mortgaged property absolutely to the mortgagee, but subject to a proviso that he will re-transfer it to the mortgagor upon payment of the mortgage money as agreed, the transaction is called an English mortgage.
A mortgage which is not a simple mortgage, a mortgage by conditional sale, an usufructuary mortgage, an English mortgage or a mortgage by deposit of title deeds within the meaning of section 58 is called an anomalous mortgage.